A steady stream of new peanut varieties is flowing from breeding programs across the peanut belt. Newly released varieties will be superior to previously available cultivars in one or more desirable characteristics. Growers have always wanted varieties that produce high yields and grades while exhibiting good disease resistance. Industry’s increasing demand for peanuts with the high oleic character has led to the release of a number of varieties exhibiting this important attribute. The high oleic character provides longer shelf life for the peanut seed.
Three varieties with the high oleic character have been released in Oklahoma. They represent three (Spanish, runner, and Virginia) of the four market types of peanuts grown in the U.S. Following are descriptions for these varieties.
Spanish - Olé
Olé was developed in a collaborative effort between the USDA-ARS Wheat, Peanut, and Other Field Crops Research Unit, Stillater, OK and Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK. The developers were: K.D. CHAMBERLIN*, R.S. BENNETT, H.A. MELOUK, USDA-ARS, Wheat, Peanut and Other Field Crops Research Unit; J. P. DAMICONE, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathlogy, and C. B. GODSEY, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Oklahoma State University.
OLé is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLé is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yield, grade and disease resistance compared to other high oleic Spanish varieties. OLé (tested as ARSOK-S140-1OL) is the product of a Tamspan 90 X F435 (original donor of the high O/L gene). F1 seed were grown out in 2001 and F2 generation seed were space planted in 2002 in plots at the OAES Experiment station at Ft. Cobb, OK. Single plant selections were made from F3 plots to become individual F4 breeding lines. F4-5 breeding lines were evaluated for disease resistance and agronomic performance in 2006-2007. OLé was identified in 2007 as exceptional due to its low incidence of Sclerotinia blight and high yield. Early bulk seed selection of OLé was made from healthy and Sclerotinia-free plants grown at Ft. Cobb, OK, in 2007. Seed increase of the selection as well as testing of agronomic performance was performed in 2008-2013 at several Oklahoma locations. Seed increases were also conducted at the Puerto Rico Winter Nursery. OLé was identified as exceptional due to its potential for low incidence of Sclerotinia blight and pod rot and excellent yield compared to available high oleic Spanish cultivars. In agronomic performance tests conducted from 2007- 2013 in Oklahoma, OLé averaged 48% less incidence of Sclerotinia blight and 75% less pod rot than other Spanish cultivars tested. OLé averages a yield of 500 – 1000 lbs more per acre and a crop value of $83 – $175 more per acre than other Spanish cultivars. OLé is high oleic (O/L = 20:1) and has a nutritional and flavor profile similar to that of other Spanish cultivars. OLé is a true Spanish peanut cultivar with an erect growth habit. OLé seed typically matures at 120 days after planting under Oklahoma growing conditions. Seed size of OLé is typical of Spanish cultivars with seed weight/100 averaging 47.6 g. OLé seed typically grade similar to other Spanish cultivars but have averaged 1-3 points higher depending upon location and year. The release of OLé peanut will offer producers in the US Southern Plains a true Spanish peanut with an exceptional disease resistance and yield package. The production of OLé will increase their profit margin by an average of $130 per acre, potentially increasing the economy by
$7 M annually.
Runner - Red River Runner
Red River Runner is the latest high value peanut variety stemming from the Southwest High Oleic Peanut Research Program, supported in part by the Oklahoma Peanut Commission and the Texas Peanut Producers Board. Participants in this program include the USDA/ Agricultural Research Service, Texas A&M University and Oklahoma State University.
Red River Runner is derived from a three-way cross among Tamrun 96, breeding line TX901639-3 and Sunoleic 95R, the donor of the high O/L genes. The original cross was made in the spring of 1997 at College Station, Texas. The line was first tested in southwest Oklahoma in 2002. Based on that test, which showed moderate resistance to Sclerotinia blight compared with Okrun and Florunner, the variety was selected for further evaluation. In 2002, USDA scientists in Oklahoma planted Red River Runner under heavy pressure from Sclerotinia blight at the Caddo Research Station near Fort Cobb, Oklahoma. Since 2003, Red River Runner has been evaluated in peanut growing regions throughout Oklahoma.
Red River Runner is sold under a license agreement with Texas A&M University and University Florida Research Foundation.
Virginias - Venus
Venus is a large-seeded, high-oleic Virginia-type peanut that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the variety Jupiter. Venus was released by USDA-ARS in 2015. It is the first high-oleic Virginia-type peanut developed specifically for the southwest. It has yield potential similar to Jupiter. The variety will be available in spring 2016.
Venus (experimental designation ARSOK-V30B) is the result of a cross between the cultivar Jupiter, a non high-oleic Virginia peanut released by the Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station in 2000, and ARSOK-R2, a high-oleic advanced breeding line. Tests conducted in three locations across Oklahoma in 2012-2014 showed there was no significant difference between the yields of Venus and Jupiter. However, Venus graded significantly higher than Jupiter in two out of three locations. Venus also consistently exhibited less incidence of Sclerotinia blight (61% less) and pod rot (70% less) when compared to Jupiter. The purpose for releasing Venus is to provide peanut producers in the Southwestern US with its first high-oleic Virginia peanut, developed specifically for that region, with enhanced grade and disease resistance when compared to Jupiter.
Oklahoma Peanut Commission